“Already run a simulation today?”

me, sitting on the Bierkiste

Hi, my name is Elias Niepötter. I’m 21 years old and studying mechatronic engineering in a dual study program. Right now I’m in my final year of my Bachelor’s Degree with the main subjects:

  • Vehicle Systems
  • Control Engineering
  • System Modeling

I joined Medium as a writer in December 2020 and I mostly write about a lot of topics regarding engineering and applied mathematics. I think I can bring a bunch of different perspectives to these rather technical topics.

Due to my dual study program, I work as an engineer in summer and spring break in the automotive industry at a…

Math & Math | Introducing Systems Engineering

image created by author

This part of engineering fundamentals is going to introduce you to Systems Engineering. I’m going to explain the basic concepts of how to describe a system in the time domain using examples to make things clearer. This story is not about modeling.

  1. Abstract
  2. The basic elements: P, I and D
  3. Variations of basic elements
  4. Summary


To be very abstract, a system is something that gets an input and has an output. The numbers of inputs and outputs can vary so we will differentiate between a Single Input Single Output System (SISO-System) and a Multiple-Inputs Multiple-Output Systems (MIMO-System). The input is…

Top 3 must-know Algorithms as an Engineer in modern CAE

In this part of the engineering fundamentals series, I’m going to cover why engineers need to know their basic algorithms and why this helps to improve CAE. Three different algorithms from three different fields of application are covered with mathematical descriptions, code, pictures and examples.

image created by author
  1. Why engineers should know their algorithms
  2. Jacobi Method
  3. Heun’s Method
  4. Gradient Descent
  5. Summary

Why engineers should know their algorithms

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is getting more and more important in modern engineering. FEM-programs, simulation tools and huge libraries are offered to the engineer who has to decide what suits his problem best he’s facing. But to make a good decision you have…

Which tools should you use to boost your workflow?

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There are hundreds of different tools, apps and programs available to us when it comes to creativity and productivity tools. I’m going to present to you my Top 6 tools I currently use in university and I think are best for students. If your university provides you with a version of Microsoft Office 365 it is free to use, like the rest of the tools I’m going to present (there might be Pro-Versions of some of the tools that cost a bit).

This story starts a new series called productivity fundamentals where I’m going to present different topics wit regards…

How to describe everything with mathematics

This story will give you an introduction to how to model technical systems. It covers why modeling is so important for engineers, some basic techniques, and an example of a technical system describes via an ODE.

image created by author Elias Niepötter
  1. Why modeling is so important as an engineer
  2. Basic techniques & math
  3. A common example
  4. Summary

This story starts a series called engineering fundamentals where I’m going to cover different topics from the world of engineering.

Why modeling is so important as an engineer

Just to make this clear right away: Not every engineer is modeling technical systems at his job, by far. However, in my opinion, it is a more and…

Math & Nature | An introduction to Metaheuristics

This story will cover the fundamentals of Metaheuristics and will give you an introduction to the basic concept of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm.

Photo by Barth Bailey on Unsplash
  1. What are Metaheuristics?
  2. Particle Swarm Optimization
  3. What is this useful for?
  4. Summary

What are Metaheuristics?¹

A metaheuristic is a high-level abstraction of established sets of mathematical rules with some randomness that leads a search process to find (near)-optimal solutions to a problem.¹

Metaheuristics are used to solve optimization problems as an alternative to exact methods like Newton’s Method or Gradient Descent. Their advantage over such exact methods is their low…

A greedy alternative for your Hyperparameter Tuning

This story will show you an alternative Random Search algorithm that might be useful for your Hyperparameter Tuning. I will cover the main concept behind it and give a detailed example of the algorithm.

Photo by Jeremy Thomas on Unsplash
  1. What is a greedy algorithm?
  2. The concept of Deep Random Search
  3. Discussion

What is a greedy algorithm?

In informatics, an algorithm is used to solve problems systematically. There are many concepts on how to design an algorithm. A greedy concept is one of the most basic ones. A solution is defined stepwise and the greedy algorithm makes his decision (to solve the problem at a certain step) based on the current…

An introduction to Euler methods

This story will give you a brief introduction to the basics of numerical integration and how it is used to solve Ordinary Differential Equations. I will cover the explicit Euler and implicit Euler method as well as Heun’s method in this story.

  1. How to solve ODEs numerically
  2. Explicit Euler
  3. Implicit Euler
  4. The combination of both Euler methods (aka Heun’s method)

How to solve ODEs numerically

Ordinary Differential Equations are not only a special set of equations in mathematics. From the perspective of an ongoing engineer, ODEs can be used to describe dynamic systems in our real world. So let’s go with an example.

Elias Niepötter

engineering student and formula student engineer

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